ClenbuterolThere are reports clenbuterol, a substance banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency WADAis being used to increase growth in Mexican livestock, including cattle, lamb, poultry and swine, and could therefore be accidentally eaten by competing athletes. Clenbuterol in meat number of cases worldwide have shown that illicit administration of clenbuterol to animals destined for food production can result in, if eaten under specific conditions, a positive sample from an athlete. In humans the drug is used for performance-enhancement by increasing lean muscle mass and reducing body fat and is classified by WADA under the category of other Anabolic Steroids for dogs prednisone. Unfortunately, anti-doping authorities have no control over agricultural and food safety practices in these countries, and inadvertent ingestion remains an ongoing issue for athletes. Both the hotels and the venues where the athletes will be staying will not serve meat beef or clenbuterol in meat.
Effects on meat quality of the use of clenbuterol in veal calves. - PubMed - NCBI
Clenbuterol , marketed as Dilaterol , Spiropent , Ventipulmin ,  is a sympathomimetic amine used by sufferers of breathing disorders as a decongestant and bronchodilator. People with chronic breathing disorders such as asthma use this as a bronchodilator to make breathing easier.
It is most commonly available as the hydrochloride salt , clenbuterol hydrochloride. It increases the rate at which body fat is metabolized while increasing the body's basal metabolic rate BMR. Clenbuterol is also prescribed for treatment of horses , but equine use is usually the liquid form.
Clenbuterol is approved for use in some countries, free or via prescription, as a bronchodilator for asthma patients. Clenbuterol is not an ingredient of any therapeutic drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration  and is now banned for IOC -tested athletes. Although often used by bodybuilders during their "cutting" cycles, [ citation needed ] the drug has been more recently known to the mainstream, particularly through publicized stories of use by celebrities such as Victoria Beckham ,  Britney Spears , and Lindsay Lohan ,  for its off-label use as a weight-loss drug similar to usage of other sympathomimetic amines such as ephedrine , despite the lack of sufficient clinical testing either supporting or negating such use.
A three-year suspension for taking clenbuterol kept sprinter Katrin Krabbe from competing in the Summer Olympics , and effectively ended her athletic career. In , San Francisco Giants pitcher Guillermo Mota, while a member of the New York Mets, received a game suspension after testing positive for clenbuterol.
American swimmer Jessica Hardy tested positive at the US trials in She was subject to a one-year suspension, having claimed she unknowingly took the drug in a contaminated food supplement. Former New York Mets clubhouse employee Kirk Radomski admitted in his plea deal to distributing clenbuterol to dozens of current and former Major League Baseball players and associates. Louis Cardinals minor-league shortstop Lainer Bueno received a game suspension for the season as a result of testing positive for clenbuterol.
Cyclist Alberto Contador of Spain was banned for two years from professional cycling after testing positive for the drug at the Tour de France. In April the Union Cycliste Internationale announced that it accepted Rogers' explanation that the substance had been ingested by him after consuming contaminated meat whilst competing at the Tour of Beijing , upholding Rogers' disqualification from the Japan Cup but declining to impose any further sanctions on him. In , players of the Mexico national football team were found with clenbuterol in their bloodstreams , but were acquitted by WADA after they claimed the clenbuterol came from contaminated food.
FIFA has also claimed players from multiple countries who were participating in the Under World Cup in Mexico tested positive for this drug.
In , Mexican boxer Erik Morales was suspended for two years after testing positive for clenbuterol. Carter claimed he used an unprescribed asthma inhaler. In , South Korean swimmer Kim Ji-heun has tested positive for clenbuterol at an out-of-competition test on May 13, After completion of proceedings by the Korea Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel, Kim received a two-year suspension, back-dated to the day of his positive test. In , Czech body builder Petr Soukup received a lifetime ban after a positive test for clenbuterol, metenolon, mesterolon, methamphetamine, oxandrolon, stanozolol, nandrolon, fluoxymesterone, DHCMtestosterone and metandienon.
In , Yankees minor league pitching prospect Moises Cedeno tested positive for clenbuterol and was suspended for 72 games. In , two players from the Collingwood Football Club in Australia were delisted from the club and accepted 2-year bans from all sport in Australia after testing positive to the substance, which they believe may have been in a contaminated illicit drug they consumed.
In , Australian heavyweight boxing champion Lucas Browne tested positive for clenbuterol. In , Raul A. Mondesi tested positive for clenbuterol and was suspended 50 games from the Northwest Arkansas Naturals. In , the California State Athletic Commission decided to issue Francisco Vargas a temporary boxing license on a probationary basis after he tested positive for clenbuterol.
In , British Olympic sprinter Nigel Levine was provisionally suspended for failing a drugs test . In March of , champion boxer Canelo Alvarez tested positive for clenbuterol on 2 consecutive urine tests in February Alvarez blamed the positive tests on consumption of contaminated meats from Mexico.
Notably, some Mexican beef farmers are known to add clenbuterol to cow feed. Clenbuterol can cause these side effects: Persons self-administering the drug for weight loss or to improve athletic performance have experienced nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, palpitations, tachycardia, and myocardial infarction.
Use of the drug may be confirmed by detecting its presence in semen or urine. Clenbuterol is occasionally referred to as " bute " and this risks confusion with phenylbutazone , also called "bute". Phenylbutazone, which is a drug also used with horses, was tested for in the European meat adulteration scandal. Intended to result in leaner meat with a higher muscle-to-fat ratio, the use of clenbuterol has been banned in meat since in the USA and since in the European Union.
The drug is banned due to health concerns about symptoms noted in consumers. These include increased heart rate, muscular tremors, headaches, nausea, fever, and chills. In several cases in Europe, these adverse symptoms have been temporary. It is not licensed for use in China  or the United States  or the EU  for food producing animals, but some countries have approved it for animals not used for food, and a few countries have approved it for therapeutic uses in food-producing animals.
Not just athletes are affected by contamination. In Portugal, 50 people were reported as affected by clenbuterol in liver and pork between and , while in , veal liver was suspected of causing clenbuterol poisoning in 22 people in France and people in Spain.
In September , some people in Shanghai suffered from food poisoning after eating clenbuterol-contaminated pork. In February , at least 70 people in one Chinese province Guangdong suffered food poisoning after eating pig organs believed to contain clenbuterol residue. The victims complained of stomachaches and diarrhea after eating pig organs bought in local markets.
In March , China's Ministry of Agriculture said the government would launch a one-year crackdown on illegal additives in pig feed, after a subsidiary of Shuanghui Group , China's largest meat producer, was exposed for using clenbuterol-contaminated pork in its meat products. A total of 72 people in central Henan Province, where Shuanghui is based, were taken into police custody for allegedly producing, selling or using clenbuterol.
The US and the EU prohibit the use of clenbuterol in food-producing animals. It can be used both orally and intravenously.
It is also used in cattle to relax the uterus in cows, usually at the time of parturition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. This article may contain indiscriminate , excessive , or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions.
The new weight-loss wonder drug gripping Planet Zero". Retrieved May 7, The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 22 April The Sydney Morning Herald. British sprinter provisionally suspended for failing drugs test".
Retrieved 19 May Retrieved August 22, Uses Archived at the Wayback Machine. Drugs for obstructive airway diseases: Abediterol Carmoterol Indacaterol Olodaterol Vilanterol. Epinephrine Hexoprenaline Isoprenaline isoproterenol Orciprenaline metaproterenol. Aclidinium bromide Glycopyrronium bromide Ipratropium bromide Oxitropium bromide Tiotropium bromide Umeclidinium bromide.
Leukotriene antagonists Montelukast Pranlukast Zafirlukast.