AP Biology RespirationCells are important constituents of any organism. Numerous chemical reactions take place in these cells in order to carry out different actions. All the reactions brtween together referred to as metabolism. The chemicals that are involved in metabolism are known as metabolites. Metabolism as biochemical processes, are important in many contexts. They are important hgh supplements safe maintaining life.
Difference between Metabolism, Catabolism and Anabolism | Metabolism vs Catabolism vs Anabolism
What is the difference between anabolism and catabolism. The buildup of complex organic molecules from simpler ones, reactions are called anabolic or biosynthetic. They involve dehydration synthesis release water and are endergonic.
The breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler ones. Reactions are called catabolic or degradative reactions, they are usually hydrolytic reaction and are exergonic. How is ATP an intermediate of anabolism and catabolism. Whilst anabolic reactions require the energy from the ATP's phosphate bond. What are the two main parts of an enzyme? Apoenzyme which is the protein portion and is a large molecule. Also a cofactor which is a non-protein ions of Fe, Zn, Mg, and Cz.
What is a coenzyme? What is a holoenzyme? An apoenzyme and a cofactor combined. Why are enzymes important? They are important in metabolic pathways, lower activation energy, speed up reactions.
Enzymes orient molecules to increase probability of collision. What are some important coenzymes? What are some factors that influence enzyme activity? Oxidation is the loss of electrons Reduction is the gain of electrons Redox reaction: Three types of phosphorylation? Oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation, and photophosphorylation. Releases energy, some of which is used to generate ATP via chemiosmosis.
High energy phosphate groups directly transferred to ADP. What is an example of carbohydrate catabolism? Glycolysis to Krebs cycle to ETC. The oxidation of glucose, a six carbon molecule, to Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate three carbon molecules and ends with two pyruvic acids a three carbon molecule.
Describe the Krebs cycle. This energy is used to synthesize ATP. Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Final electron acceptor is an inorganic substance. Releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules, does not require oxygen, does not use Krebs or ETC, uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor.
Produces only small amounts of ATP. What three bacteria produce lactic acid? What bacteria produces ethanol? Streptococcus, lactobacillus, and bacillus.
Describe light dependent stage in photosynthesis. Electrons return to the chlorophyll. What are the main portals of entry? Mucous membranes, skin, and parenteral route. Describe mucous membrane portal of entry and give example of a microbe that uses it. Gains access through respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and conjuctiva.
This is the easiest and most frequent entry. Influenzavirus which causes flu, it's portal of entry is the respiratory tract. Describe skin portal of entry and give example of a microbe that uses it. Gains access through hair follicles and sweat gland ducts. Example is Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus. Describe parenteral portal of entry and an example of a microbe that uses it. Through puncture, injections, bites, cuts, wounds, and surgery.
Pathogens are deposited directly into tissues beneath skin or into mucous membranes. An example is Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus.
In gram negative bacteria, it is a lipid portion of LPS outer membrane called lipid A. Release when bacteria dies and cell walls undergo lysis. How do pathogens penetrate host defenses? Through traits exhibited by the bacteria such as a capsule, M.
Protein, Opa protein and fimbrae, and mycolic acid. Through enzymes such as coagulase, kinase, collagenase, and hyaluronidase. Antigenic variation and penetration into the host cytoskeleton. What do capsules do? Chemicals in the capsule prevent phagocytic cells from attaching to cell wall components. They help attach pathogens to host, heat and acid resistant, phagocytosis resistant.
What do Opa proteins and finbrae do? They help the pathogen adhere to the host. What does mycolic acid do? They are resistant to digestion by phagocytes. Name enzymes that affect virulence. Coagulase, kinase, collagenase, and hyaluronidase. What does coagulase do? Coagulates the fibrogen in blood, converts it to fibrin.
What does kinase do? Breaks down the fibrin, used to isolate infection. What does collagenase do? Breaks down the protein collagen, which forms connective tissue in muscles.
Hydrolizes hyaluronic acid in connective tissue. What is antigenic variation? The process by which pathogens alter their antigens to avoid inactivation by antibodies. Influenzavirus and Trypanosoma brucci gambiense. How do microbes penetrate host cell cytoskeletions? Microbes produce surface proteins called invasins that rearrange nearby actin filaments in the cytoskeleton, the microbe is then able to sink into the cell and be engulfed. It can then use the actin to propel themself through the host cell cytoplasm from cell to cell.
Also called membrane ruffling. What are the cytopathic effects of viruses? They are visible effects of viral infection. What are the seven cytopathic effects. Lysosome releases enzymes, causing cell death. Formation of a large multinucleated cell called a sncytium 5. Results in changes in host cell's function with no visible change in infected cell 6.
Produces interferons which protect neighboring unifected cells from viral infections 7. Induces antigenic changes, causes hosts immune system to target cell for destruction 8. Chromosomal changes in host cell. Loss of contact inhibition, which is the stopping of cell growth in vitro oncein contact with another cell.