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Ormone sessuale - WikiVisually
Tali messaggeri chimici sono principalmente prodotti da ghiandole endocrine, diversamente dall'individuo femminile e da quello maschile. Gli ormoni sessuali sono responsabili di tutti i mutamenti fisici e chimici che si manifestano nel periodo dell' adolescenza riguardanti la riproduzione sessuata.
Essi sono prodotti dalle ovaie , dai testicoli e dalla corteccia surrenale; si suddividono in:. Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze — The library was founded in when scholar Antonio Magliabechi bequeathed his entire collection of books, encompassing approximately 30, volumes, to the city of Florence.
By , it was required that a copy of work published in Tuscany be submitted to the library. Originally known as the Magliabechiana, the library was opened to the public in and its holdings were combined with those of the Biblioteca Palatina in , and by , the library had been renamed as the National Central Library of Florence, or the BNCF.
Since , the library has collected copies of all Italian publications, since , the collections have been housed in a building designed by Cesare Bazzani and V. Mazzei, located along the Arno River in the quarter of Santa Croce. Before this, they were found in various rooms belonging to the Uffizi Gallery, the National Library System, located in the BNCF, is responsible for the automation of library services and the indexing of national holdings.
Unfortunately, a flood of the Arno River in damaged nearly one-third of the librarys holdings, most notably its periodicals and Palatine. The Restoration Center was subsequently established and may be credited with saving many of these priceless artifacts, however, much work remains to be done and some items are forever lost.
Farmacologia — More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals, the two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The former studies the effects of the drug on biological systems, Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are frequently confused.
In either field, the primary contrast between the two are their distinctions between direct-patient care, for practice, and the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology. Clinical pharmacology owes much of its foundation to the work of William Withering, Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the midth century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period.
The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in , in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs, early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts.
Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts. The discipline of pharmacology can be divided into many sub disciplines each with a specific focus, neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of medication on central and peripheral nervous system functioning.
This is similar to the closely related ethnopharmacology, psychopharmacology is an interdisciplinary field which studies behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs. Another goal of behavioral pharmacology is to develop animal behavioral models to screen chemical compounds with therapeutic potentials, study of drugs which affect behavior. Ethopharmacology is a term which has been in use since the s and derives from the Greek word ethos meaning character and pharmacology the study of drug actions, cardiovascular pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, including the heart and blood vessels.
Pharmacogenetics is clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs, pharmacogenomics is the application of genomic technologies to drug discovery and further characterization of older drugs.
Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the effects of drugs in large numbers of people, systems pharmacology is the application of systems biology principles to the field of pharmacology. Toxicology is the study of the effects, molecular targets. Theoretical pharmacologists aim at rationalizing the relation between the activity of a drug, as observed experimentally, and its structural features as derived from computer experiments.
They aim to find structure—activity relations, more ambitiously, it aims to predict entirely new classes of drugs, tailor-made for specific purposes. Posology is the study of how medicines are dosed and this depends upon various factors including age, climate, weight, sex, elimination rate of drug, genetic polymorphism and time of administration.
It is derived from the Greek words posos meaning how much, environmental pharmacology is a new discipline. Metabolismo — Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, usually, breaking down releases energy and building up consumes energy. The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical.
Enzymes act as catalysts that allow the reactions to proceed more rapidly, enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cells environment or to signals from other cells. The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious, for example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals.
The speed of metabolism, the rate, influences how much food an organism will require. A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the metabolic pathways. These striking similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their appearance in evolutionary history.
Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three classes of molecule, amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. These biochemicals can be joined together to make such as DNA and proteins. Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds, many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism.
Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals and their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy.
Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform, the fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol, a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride.
Several variations on this structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids. Steroids such as cholesterol are another class of lipids. Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with hydroxyl groups attached.
Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy, the basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose. Antagonista dei recettori H2 — H2 antagonists, also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
This decreases the production of stomach acid, H2 antagonists can be used in the treatment of dyspepsia, but have been surpassed by the more effective proton pump inhibitors. They are also used to treat peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H2 antagonists are a type of antihistamine, although in common use the term antihistamine is often reserved for H1 antagonists, which relieve allergic reactions.
It was first marketed in and sold under the trade name Tagamet, Cimetidine ranitidine famotidine nizatidine Cimetidine was the prototypical histamine H2-receptor antagonist from which later drugs were developed. Black, robin Ganellin, and others to develop a histamine receptor antagonist that would suppress stomach acid secretion. From this lead, the model was further refined, which eventually led to the development of burimamide.
And efforts on further improvement of the structure, based on the modification in the stomach due to the acid dissociation constant of the compound.
Metiamide was an agent, however, it was associated with unacceptable nephrotoxicity. Ranitidine was developed by Glaxo, in an effort to match the success of Smith, ranitidine was also the result of a rational drug design process utilising the by-then-fairly-refined model of the histamine H2 receptor and quantitative structure-activity relationships. Glaxo refined the model further by replacing the imidazole-ring of cimetidine with a furan-ring with a nitrogen-containing substituent, ranitidine was found to have a far-improved tolerability profile, longer-lasting action, and ten times the activity of cimetidine.
Ranitidine was introduced in and was the worlds biggest-selling prescription drug by , the H2-receptor antagonists have since largely been superseded by the even more effective proton pump inhibitors, with omeprazole becoming the biggest-selling drug for many years.
The H2 antagonists are competitive antagonists of histamine at the parietal cells H2 receptor and they suppress the normal secretion of acid by parietal cells and the meal-stimulated secretion of acid. Proton pump inhibitors, however, are the treatment for erosive esophagitis since they have been shown to promote healing better than H2-antagonists.
Dimagrante — Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are all pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These drugs alter one of the processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite. The main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting, in the United States orlistat is currently approved by the FDA for long-term use.
It reduces intestinal fat absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, rimonabant, a second drug, works via a specific blockade of the endocannabinoid system. It has been developed from the knowledge that cannabis smokers often experience hunger and it had been approved in Europe for the treatment of obesity but has not received approval in the United States or Canada due to safety concerns. The European Medicines Agency in October recommended the suspension of the sale of rimonabant as the risks seem to be greater than the benefits, drugs blocking the cannabinoid receptors may be a future strategy for appetite suppression.
Interference with the ability to absorb specific nutrients in food. For example, Orlistat blocks fat breakdown and thereby prevents fat absorption, the first described attempts at producing weight loss are those of Soranus of Ephesus, a Greek physician, in the second century AD.
He prescribed elixirs of laxatives and purgatives, as well as heat, massage and this remained the mainstay of treatment for well over a thousand years. It was not until the s and s that new treatments began to appear, based on its effectiveness for hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone became a popular treatment for obesity in euthyroid people. It had a modest effect but produced the symptoms of hyperthyroidism as an effect, such as palpitations.
Overdose, although rare, lead to a rise in temperature and, ultimately. By the end of DNP had fallen out of use because the FDA had become empowered to put pressure on manufacturers, amphetamines became popular for weight loss during the late s.
They worked primarily by suppressing appetite, and had other effects such as increased alertness. Use of amphetamines increased over the subsequent decades, including Obetrol and this was a combination of multiple pills, all thought to help with weight loss, taken throughout the day. Sangue — Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Albumin is the protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are red blood cells, white blood cells. The most abundant cells in blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, a protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas. In contrast, carbon dioxide is mostly transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma, vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated.
Some animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks, use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. In most insects, this blood does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their system to suffice for supplying oxygen. Jawed vertebrates have an immune system, based largely on white blood cells.
White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites, platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system, Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart.
In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones. The average adult has a volume of roughly 5 litres. Whole blood exhibits non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, if all human hemoglobin were free in the plasma rather than being contained in RBCs, the circulatory fluid would be too viscous for the cardiovascular system to function effectively.
One microliter of blood contains,4. Antiemorragici — An antihemorrhagic agent is a substance that promotes hemostasis. It may also be known as a hemostatic agent, a styptic is a specific type of antihemorrhagic agent that works by contracting tissue to seal injured blood vessels. Antihemorrhagic agents used in medicine have various mechanisms of action, Systemic drugs work by inhibiting fibrinolysis or promoting coagulation, locally-acting hemostatic agents work by causing vasoconstriction or promoting platelet aggregation.
Hemostatic agents are used during surgical procedures to achieve hemostasis and are categorized as hemostats, sealants and they vary based on their mechanism of action, composition, ease of application, adherence to tissue, immunogenicity and cost.
There are several classes of drugs used in medicine. These include antifibrinolytics, blood coagulation factors, fibrinogen, and vitamin K, topical hemostatic agents have been gaining popularity for use in emergency bleeding control, especially in military medicine. They are available in two forms—as a granular powder poured on wounds, or embedded in a dressing, microfibrillar collagen hemostat is a topical agent composed of resorbable microfibrillar collagen.
It attracts platelets and allows for the formation of a blood clot when it comes into contact with blood, unlike the hemostatic clamp, no mechanical action is involved. The surgeon presses the MCH against a site, and the collagen attracts.