9 Steps to Establish the Lean Supply Chain: A System of Interconnected & Interdependent PartnersLean manufacturing or lean deca welding machine dubaioften simply " lean ", is a systematic method for waste minimization " Muda " within a manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity. Lean initiative cycle order also takes into lean initiative cycle order waste created through overburden " Muri " and waste created through unevenness in work loads " Mura ". Working from the perspective of the client who consumes a product or service, "value" is any action chcle process that a len would be willing to pay for. Lean manufacturing anavar 60mg ed obvious what adds value, by reducing everything else which is not adding value. This management philosophy is derived mostly from the Toyota Production System TPS and identified as "lean" only in the s. The steady lean initiative cycle order of Toyotafrom a small company to the world's largest automaker,  has focused attention on how it has achieved this success. Lean principles are derived from the Japanese manufacturing industry.
Lean manufacturing - Wikipedia
Lean manufacturing or lean production , often simply " lean ", is a systematic method for waste minimization " Muda " within a manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity. Lean also takes into account waste created through overburden " Muri " and waste created through unevenness in work loads " Mura ". Working from the perspective of the client who consumes a product or service, "value" is any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for.
Lean manufacturing makes obvious what adds value, by reducing everything else which is not adding value. This management philosophy is derived mostly from the Toyota Production System TPS and identified as "lean" only in the s. The steady growth of Toyota , from a small company to the world's largest automaker,  has focused attention on how it has achieved this success. Lean principles are derived from the Japanese manufacturing industry.
For many, lean is the set of "tools" that assist in the identification and steady elimination of waste. As waste is eliminated quality improves while production time and cost are reduced.
A non exhaustive list of such tools would include: SMED , value stream mapping , Five S , Kanban pull systems , poka-yoke error-proofing , total productive maintenance , elimination of time batching, mixed model processing, rank order clustering , single point scheduling , redesigning working cells, multi-process handling and control charts for checking mura.
There is a second approach to lean manufacturing, which is promoted by Toyota, called The Toyota Way , in which the focus is upon improving the "flow" or smoothness of work, thereby steadily eliminating mura "unevenness" through the system and not upon 'waste reduction' per se.
Techniques to improve flow include production leveling , "pull" production by means of kanban and the Heijunka box. This is a fundamentally different approach from most improvement methodologies, and requires considerably more persistence than basic application of the tools, which may partially account for its lack of popularity.
The difference between these two approaches is not the goal itself, but rather the prime approach to achieving it. The implementation of smooth flow exposes quality problems that already existed, and thus waste reduction naturally happens as a consequence. The advantage claimed for this approach is that it naturally takes a system-wide perspective, whereas a waste focus sometimes wrongly assumes this perspective.
Both lean and TPS can be seen as a loosely connected set of potentially competing principles whose goal is cost reduction by the elimination of waste. The disconnected nature of some of these principles perhaps springs from the fact that the TPS has grown pragmatically since as it responded to the problems it saw within its own production facilities. Thus what one sees today is the result of a 'need' driven learning to improve where each step has built on previous ideas and not something based upon a theoretical framework.
Toyota's view is that the main method of lean is not the tools, but the reduction of three types of waste: From this perspective, the tools are workarounds adapted to different situations, which explains any apparent incoherence of the principles above.
Also known as the flexible mass production, the TPS has two pillar concepts: Just-in-time JIT or "flow", and "autonomation" smart automation. If production flows perfectly meaning it is both "pull" and with no interruptions then there is no inventory ; if customer valued features are the only ones produced, then product design is simplified and effort is only expended on features the customer values. The other of the two TPS pillars is the very human aspect of autonomation, whereby automation is achieved with a human touch.
Lean implementation emphasizes the importance of optimizing work flow through strategic operational procedures while minimizing waste and being adaptable. However, adaptability is often constrained, and therefore may not require significant investment. More importantly, all of these concepts have to be acknowledged by employees who develop the products and initiate processes that deliver value. The cultural and managerial aspects of lean are arguably more important than the actual tools or methodologies of production itself.
There are many examples of lean tool implementation without sustained benefit, and these are often blamed on weak understanding of lean throughout the whole organization. Lean aims to enhance productivity by simplifying the operational structure enough to understand, perform and manage the work environment.
To achieve these three goals simultaneously, one of Toyota's mentoring methodologies loosely called Senpai and Kohai which is Japanese for senior and junior , can be used to foster lean thinking throughout the organizational structure from the ground up.
The closest equivalent to Toyota's mentoring process is the concept of " Lean Sensei ," which encourages companies, organizations, and teams to seek third-party experts that can provide advice and coaching.
Most of the basic goals of lean manufacturing and waste reduction were derived from Benjamin Franklin through documented examples. Poor Richard's Almanack says of wasted time, "He that idly loses 5 s. A pin a-day is a groat a-year. Again Franklin's The Way to Wealth says the following about carrying unnecessary inventory. You expect they will be sold cheap, and, perhaps, they may [be bought] for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you.
Remember what Poor Richard says, 'Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries. The accumulation of waste and energy within the work environment was noticed by motion efficiency expert Frank Gilbreth , who witnessed the inefficient practices of masons who often bend over to gather bricks from the ground.
The introduction of a non-stooping scaffold, which delivered the bricks at waist level, allowed masons to work about three times as quickly, and with the least amount of effort. Frederick Winslow Taylor , the father of scientific management , introduced what are now called standardization and best practice deployment.
In Principles of Scientific Management , , Taylor said: And whenever the new method is found to be markedly superior to the old, it should be adopted as the standard for the whole establishment. Taylor also warned explicitly against cutting piece rates or, by implication, cutting wages or discharging workers when efficiency improvements reduce the need for raw labor: Shigeo Shingo , the best-known exponent of single minute exchange of die and error-proofing or poka-yoke, cites Principles of Scientific Management as his inspiration.
American industrialists recognized the threat of cheap offshore labor to American workers during the s, and explicitly stated the goal of what is now called lean manufacturing as a countermeasure.
Henry Towne, past President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers , wrote in the Foreword to Frederick Winslow Taylor's Shop Management , "We are justly proud of the high wage rates which prevail throughout our country, and jealous of any interference with them by the products of the cheaper labor of other countries. To maintain this condition, to strengthen our control of home markets, and, above all, to broaden our opportunities in foreign markets where we must compete with the products of other industrial nations, we should welcome and encourage every influence tending to increase the efficiency of our productive processes.
Henry Ford initially ignored the impact of waste accumulation while developing his mass assembly manufacturing system. Charles Buxton Going wrote in Ford, in My Life and Work ,  provided a single-paragraph description that encompasses the entire concept of waste:.
Poor arrangement of the workplace—a major focus of the modern kaizen—and doing a job inefficiently out of habit—are major forms of waste even in modern workplaces. Ford also pointed out how easy it was to overlook material waste.
A former employee, Harry Bennett, wrote:. In other words, Ford saw the rust and realized that the steel plant was not recovering all of the iron.
Ford's early success, however, was not sustainable. Womack and Daniel Jones pointed out in "Lean Thinking", what Ford accomplished represented the "special case" rather than a robust lean solution. This was made clear by Ford's precipitous decline when the company was forced to finally introduce a follow-on to the Model T. Design for Manufacture DFM is a concept derived from Ford which emphasizes the importance of standardizing individual parts as well as eliminating redundant components in My Life and Work.
Decades later, the renowned Japanese quality guru, Genichi Taguchi , demonstrated that this "goal post" method of measuring was inadequate. He showed that "loss" in capabilities did not begin only after exceeding these tolerances, but increased as described by the Taguchi Loss Function at any condition exceeding the nominal condition.
This became an important part of W. Edwards Deming 's quality movement of the s, later helping to develop improved understanding of key areas of focus such as cycle time variation in improving manufacturing quality and efficiencies in aerospace and other industries. While Ford is renowned for his production line, it is often not recognized how much effort he put into removing the fitters' work to make the production line possible.
Previous to the use, Ford's car's components were fitted and reshaped by a skilled engineer at the point of use, so that they would connect properly. Toyota's development of ideas that later became lean may have started at the turn of the 20th century with Sakichi Toyoda , in a textile factory with looms that stopped themselves when a thread broke.
This became the seed of autonomation and Jidoka. Toyota's journey with just-in-time JIT may have started back in when it moved from textiles to produce its first car. Kiichiro Toyoda , founder of Toyota Motor Corporation, directed the engine casting work and discovered many problems in their manufacturing.
He decided he must stop the repairing of poor quality by intense study of each stage of the process. In , when Toyota won its first truck contract with the Japanese government, his processes hit new problems and he developed the " Kaizen " improvement teams.
Levels of demand in the Post War economy of Japan were low and the focus of mass production on lowest cost per item via economies of scale therefore had little application. Having visited and seen supermarkets in the USA, Taiichi Ohno recognised the scheduling of work should not be driven by sales or production targets but by actual sales. Given the financial situation during this period, over-production had to be avoided and thus the notion of Pull build to order rather than target driven Push came to underpin production scheduling.
It was with Taiichi Ohno at Toyota that these themes came together. He built on the already existing internal schools of thought and spread their breadth and use into what has now become the Toyota Production System TPS. It is principally from the TPS which was widely referred to in the s as just-in-time manufacturing , but now including many other sources, that lean production is developing. Norman Bodek wrote the following in his foreword to a reprint of Ford's Today and Tomorrow: I was first introduced to the concepts of just-in-time JIT and the Toyota production system in Subsequently I had the opportunity to witness its actual application at Toyota on one of our numerous Japanese study missions.
There I met Mr. Taiichi Ohno, the system's creator. When bombarded with questions from our group on what inspired his thinking, he just laughed and said he learned it all from Henry Ford's book. Although the elimination of waste may seem like a simple and clear subject, it is noticeable that waste is often very conservatively identified.
This then hugely reduces the potential of such an aim. The elimination of waste is the goal of lean, and Toyota defined three broad types of waste: To illustrate the state of this thinking Shigeo Shingo observed that only the last turn of a bolt tightens it—the rest is just movement. This ever finer clarification of waste is key to establishing distinctions between value-adding activity, waste and non-value-adding work.
One key is to measure, or estimate, the size of these wastes, to demonstrate the effect of the changes achieved and therefore the movement toward the goal. The "flow" or smoothness based approach aims to achieve JIT, by removing the variation caused by work scheduling and thereby provide a driver, rationale or target and prioritizes for implementation, using a variety of techniques.
The effort to achieve JIT exposes many quality problems that are hidden by buffer stocks; by forcing smooth flow of only value-adding steps, these problems become visible and must be dealt with explicitly. Muri is all the unreasonable work that management imposes on workers and machines because of poor organization, such as carrying heavy weights, moving things around, dangerous tasks, even working significantly faster than usual.
It is pushing a person or a machine beyond its natural limits. This may simply be asking a greater level of performance from a process than it can handle without taking shortcuts and informally modifying decision criteria.
Unreasonable work is almost always a cause of multiple variations. To link these three concepts is simple in TPS and thus lean. Firstly, muri focuses on the preparation and planning of the process, or what work can be avoided proactively by design.