Just what is nandrolone and what does it do?It's an anabolic steroid which pumps up muscle bulk. Bodybuilders use it to achieve dramatic muscle definition, while power lifters use it to get their biceps to a maximum bulk. All anabolic steroids have a role to play in producing testosterone, the natural hormone that produces spurts of growth effects of nandrolone in sport puberty. Testosterone is also anavar 10mg dose with aggression, another useful quality for competitors. How does nandrolone work? Anabolic steroids increase the proportion of protein laid down muscle tissue and stimulate bone growth.
Nandrolone - training, exercise, strength, muscle - World of Sports Science
It's an anabolic steroid which pumps up muscle bulk. Bodybuilders use it to achieve dramatic muscle definition, while power lifters use it to get their biceps to a maximum bulk.
All anabolic steroids have a role to play in producing testosterone, the natural hormone that produces spurts of growth at puberty. Testosterone is also linked with aggression, another useful quality for competitors.
How does nandrolone work? Anabolic steroids increase the proportion of protein laid down muscle tissue and stimulate bone growth. They also stimulate the production of red blood corpuscles which in turn enhance the oxygen supply to the muscles.
Do they have any other effects? They can be dangerous, especially to children and adolescents, and even for healthy adults they have some undesirable side effects - lowered fertility but raised sex drive, shrinking testicles, raised blood pressure, headaches, nausea and a range of psychological symptoms including impulsive aggression and emotional instability.
Do anabolic steroids have legitimate uses? They can help patients on dialysis, slow weight loss in HIV-positive women, relieve distress in jaundice and help in cases of life-threatening anaemia.
What are the rules for athletes? Obviously, any athlete using anabolic steroids is likely to have an advantage over an athlete who doesn't.
The International Amateur Athletics Federation sets international rules, and has banned all use of anabolic steroids. Athletic bodies in individual countries are required to implement rules and test athletes for illicit substances.
In this country, UK Sport carries out random testing of all athletes. The high number of positive tests over recent years has led to a number of athletes' organisation to call for further investigation into anabolic steroids.
A number of sportsmen and women have tested positive in the past few years, many of whom have denied any wrongdoing. Some have claimed that nandrolone could be present in fruit and vegetables or red meat.
But a committee set up by UK Sport to investigate nandrolone concluded that many of the health supplements which have recently flooded the market could be to blame. Some athletes could have taken supplements without knowing the risks or may have been misled by manufacturers. Who else apart from Mark Richardson has tested positive?
Most famously, the athlete Linford Christie, who was cleared of any wrong-doing. Athletes Dougie Walker and Gary Cadogan also tested positive but were later cleared. French footballer Christophe Dugarry, Spencer Smith, Britain's former world triathlon champion, and Merlene Ottey, the Jamaican sprinter, have also tested positive but say they are innocent. Boxer Jon Thaxton was recently banned for nine months after testing positive.
The former Australian open champion Petr Korda was banned from playing professional tennis for two years. He was later cleared on appeal. Is it possible that athletes' samples have been spiked? Athletes often use that defence, but it has only ever been once proved successful.
In hurdler Lydumila Enquist had a four-year suspension lifted after her husband admitted to a Russian court that he had spiked his wife's food with anabolic steroids in a fit of jealousy after she had asked him for a divorce.
Where do you get hold of anabolic steroids and dietary supplements? Anabolic steroids are prescription-only medicines, and in it is illegal to supply them, though not to possess them.
Mark Richardson says the three nutritional supplements which he took were bought from Maximuscle of north London, a supplier of sports supplements. Most of them comes from the US, and are often sold by health food suppliers as well as specialist sports retailers. Supplements - many openly containing nandrolone - are available on the net.
GNC, the health-and-diet retail chain, stopped stocking the products some time ago, saying it was more then their reputation was worth.
Why is athlete Mark Richardson in trouble? He has tested positive for a banned substance called nandrolone. Richardson denies having done anything illegal, but admits that he ignored advice to stop taking nutritional supplements, which may contain nandrolone.
In the two hours before giving his positive urine samples, he took a cocktail of supplements including acetyl-glutamine to boost the immune system , Promax a protein-rich liquid , and Viper an isotonic energy drink which replaces lost fluids. Richardson says in future he would not take supplements.