You can change your ad preferences anytime. Show related SlideShares at end. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Corticosteroids Mineralcorticoids, Glucocorticoids and Androgens. Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones 7. Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones 2 The zona fasiculata: Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones 3 The zona reticularis: As well as small amounts of estrogens and some glucocorticoids.
The mechanisms are not nearly as well understood as those for glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones Cholesterol enters cell, delivered to mitochondria, cleaved by enzyme cholesterol desmolase to form pregnenolone.
The remaining conjugates formed by the liver enter the circulation but are not bound to plasma proteins, are highly soluble in the plasma, and are therefore filtered readily by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Functions of the Mineralocorticoids-Aldosterone 1. Mineralocorticoid deficiency causes severe renal sodium chloride wasting and hyperkalemia The effect on the sweat glands is important to conserve body salt in hot environments, and the effect on the salivary glands is necessary to conserve salt when excessive quantities of saliva are lost.
Increased Potassium ion concentration hyperkalemia 2. Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system increased angiotensin II 3. Functions of the Glucocorticoids Effects of Glucocorticoids 1. Promote gluconeogenesis; They work in tandem with insulin from the pancreas to maintain blood glucose levels in the proper balance; a Cortisol increases the enzymes required to convert amino acids into glucose in the liver cells.
On protein and nucleic acid metabolism; by promoting transcription and protein synthesis in liver. They also cause catabolic effects in extra- hepatic tissues results in enhanced degradation of protein On lipid metabolism; by increasing lipolysis in adipose tissue and reducing synthesis of triglyceride.
On water and electrolyte metabolism: Cortisol suppress the immune response directly and indirectly by affecting most cells that participate in immune reactions and inflammatory reactions, it is powerful anti-inflammatory even when secreted at normal levels; corticosteroids prednisone, prednisolone, etc.
Effects of Glucocorticoids Cortisol could control the contraction of the walls of the mid-sized arteries in increasing blood pressure.
It also directly affects the heart by regulating sodium and potassium in the heart cells and increasing the strength of contraction of the heart muscle. On central nervous system: The changes of behavior, mood, excitability and even the electrical activity of neurons in the brain frequently occur in cases of excess and deficient cortisol levels. Many signs and symptoms of adrenal fatigue involve moodiness, decreased tolerance, decreased clarity of thought and decreased memory.
These occur because the brain is affected by both too little and too much cortisol. Primary capillary plexus of the hypopheseal portal system in the median eminence of the hypothalamus CRF Ant.
Pituitary CRF; in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus This nucleus receives many nervous connections from the limbic system and lower brain stem Hypothalamus to decrease CRF 2. Circadian Rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion Pituitary, other hormones that have similar chemical structures are secreted simultaneously. Abnormalities in Adrenocortical Secretion Tuberculous destruction of the adrenal glands. Invasion of the adrenal cortices by cancer. Abnormalities in Adrenocortical Secretion Treatment A person can live to years if small quantities of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids are administered daily.
Different types of trauma, disease or other stresses, such as surgical operations, a person is likely to have an acute need for excessive amounts of glucocorticoids and often must be given 10 or more times the normal quantities to prevent death Abnormalities in Adrenocortical Secretion Symptoms By Mayo Clinic Staff Addison's disease symptoms usually develop slowly, often over several months, and may include: Abnormalities in Adrenocortical Secretion Acute adrenal failure addisonian crisis Sometimes, the signs and symptoms of Addison's disease may appear suddenly.
In acute adrenal failure addisonian crisis , The signs and symptoms may also include: Kennedy was one of the best-known people with Addison's disease and was possibly one of the first to survive major surgery. Substantial secrecy surrounded his health during his years as president.
Adenomas of the ant. Pituitary that secrete large amounts of ACTH; then causes adrenal hyperplasia and excess cortisol secretion 2. Ectopic secretion of ACTH by a tumor elsewhere in the body; such as an abdominal carcinoma 4. Adenomas of the adrenal cortex 5. When large amounts of glucocorticoids are administered over a prolonged periods for therapeutic purposes; for example rheumatoid arthritis Small tumor of the zona glomerulosa cells occurs and secretes large amounts of aldosterone.
In few instances hyperplastic adrenal cortices secrete aldosterone rather than cortisol. The effects as mentioned before: Hypokalemia occasional muscle paralysis 2. Slight increase in extracellular fluid volume 3. Slight increase in blood volume 4. Almost always hypertention Diagnostic criteria: Decreased plasma renin concentration feedback suppression Treatment: Surgical removal of the tumor or of most of the adrenal tissue when hyperplasia is the cause.
Abnormalities in Adrenocortical Secretion Adrenogenital Syndrome An occasional adrenocortical tumor secretes excessive quantities of androgens that cause intense masculinizing effects throughout the body In females, virile characteristics; growth of beard, a much deeper voice, occasionally baldness, masculine distribution of hair on the body… masculine characteristics.
In a prepubertal male, rapid development of the male sexual organs. In the adult male, the virilizing characteristics of the syndrome are usually obscured by the normal virilizing characteristics of the testosterone secreted by the testes; as a result diagnosis could be difficult, but in this syndrome, the excretion of ketosteroids in the urine may be times normal, this can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.
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